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Protein Powders Supplements

Posted on August 24, 2018

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Protein Powder Supplements General Information


Protein. Such a simple name for one of the most debated food supplements amongst bodybuilders and athletes alike. Then there’s the wide variety of sources, types and brands,  which only make this product more difficult to intellectually unravel. This article aims to simplify your understanding of protein, its many sources and the different types available, and also how to use this product to help achieve certain goals.


Proteins are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. It is the presence of nitrogen which sets protein apart from other nutrients. Since we have no other source of nitrogen, one of the most important roles of protein is to bring nitrogen into the body. Protein is further broken down into amino acids within the body which consist of essential and non-essential amino acids. Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body from the essential amino acids. They are named non-essential because it is not essential that we consume them in our diet, given that we have adequate essential amino acids coming in. Essential amino acids must be obtained from a food source, and play countless crucial roles in the body. Of the essential amino acids, there are three known as Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs), which offer distinct metabolic advantages for muscle tissue.


Protein Functions in Body

Protein is a nutrient that is essential for the growth and maintenance of the human body. It is the key nutrient for success in terms of sport, especially bodybuilding. This is primarily due to the fact that microtears form when muscles are under a significant amount of load. Quality protein is needed to provide the essential amino acids to stimulate protein synthesis and repair this damage. This is the anabolic process referred to as hypertrophy. The trick is, the body wants to rebuild the muscle up bigger in order to prevent damage in the future, in case the same amount of weight is lifted again. Hence, the muscles tend to get bigger and bigger. In order for muscles to repair it is essential to have the correct amount of protein at the right time. Protein is also needed for the maintenance of cells, as well as providing some energy, and also to facilitate chemical reactions. Protein is also essential for hormone production and transportation of various chemicals in the blood.


Types of Protein Powder Supplements

Milk Protein:

Dairy based protein is the most common form of protein. When the protein portion of dairy is broken down, the two peorwin types are whey and casein. Allergies to milk will prevent individuals from taking any form of whey protein. Sometimes, lactose intolerance can be an issue, which is not an allergy, but a digestive deficiency of lactase to break down the milk sugar. In this case a whey protein isolate can usually be used, a zero lactose whey protein, or a plant-based or pure egg white product. There are plenty of options!


Whey Protein Powder:

Whey protein powder comes in two major forms known as Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) and Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC). Whey Isolate contains the highest percentage of protein at about 90% and is a less common form of protein. As isolate is the cleanest form of protein, containing less fats and milk sugars. Because WPI is so pure, it is absorbed faster by the body than WPC, and pretty much all other protein types, and is ideal for fat loss and maintaining lean muscle mass.WPC contains roughly 80% protein and takes a fraction longer to be absorbed by the body. It is the less expensive form of whey protein and contains more naturally occurring carbohydrates and fats, due to the fact that it has undergone less processing that WPI. Of the Whey Protein Powders, WPI is the best.


Advantages of Whey Protein Powder:

  • Supports the immune system

  • Boost muscle recovery after workouts

  • Prevents muscle breakdown

  • Best source of essential amino acids

  • Absorbed very rapidly

  • Has a long shelf life

  • Mixes easily with water

  • Plain powder tastes quite neutral, with a slightly-milky flavour, mixed in water. Flavoured and sweetened varieties can taste awesome!


Casein Protein:

Casein protein is a less commonly used form of protein since it breaks down extremely slowly and is not as soluble in fluids as whey protein. Due to its slow absorption, casein is mainly used as a night time protein and can take up to 7-9 hours to be absorbed by the body. In theory, this is ideal as our bodies don't have the luxury of 2-3 hour frequent meals while we sleep. Unless we sleepwalk, and sleep-snack, both of which are rare. Casein is composed of a large complex protein structure, which the body struggles to digest, and takes time to absorb. This can interfere with much needed "deep" sleep if taken before bed, and can wreak havoc on those with digestive weaknesses.


Advantages of casein protein:

  • Inexpensive to produce

  • Easy to flavour

  • Long shelf life

  • Useful for night time meal

  • Mixes thicker which can be good for certain recipes

  • Filling

  • Suppresses hunger for longer than whey protein


Soy Protein:

Soy protein is a good alternative for those with milk allergies. Though soy protein has received a lot of concern regarding isoflavone content and adverse effects on thyroid function, the past 25 years or more of human research is yet to show a harmful effect. Most of the concern over soy foods and soy protein, it seems, has been derived from animal research and in-vitro studies, which pale in comparison when it comes to human research. This topic has been extensively reviewed in Nutrients in 2016.  


Soy protein is actually a complete protein source, with soy having the strongest amino acid profile for a legume. One study examined the muscle protein synthesis differences between whey, casein and soy, demonstrating that whey protein hydrolysate was 18% more effective than soy protein, and 93% greater than casein, as reported in the Journal of Applied Physiology in 1985.


Advantages of Soy protein:

  • Good alternative for lactose intolerant or those who have problems with milk based proteins

  • Lowers LDL cholesterol

  • Modestly Lowers Blood Pressure

  • Reduces Prostate and Breast Cancer Risk

  • Mixes with most foods well to increase protein content


Egg Protein:

Egg protein is a complete protein containing an abundance of nutritionally supportive amino acids. However, it is important to cook eggs before eating them, as raw egg consumption results in about a 50% reduced absorption of the amino acids, which is likely due to difficulty in digesting the protein. Egg whites contain a high amount of a substance called avidin, which has a high affinity for biotin, I.e., it binds it and inactivates it. Biotin is a B vitamin that helps utilize other B vitamins, aids the Kreb cycle in the synthesis of fats and proteins, and also helps cell reproduction. When the avidin and biotin forms a bond, the body cannot break it apart. This means tha large amounts of raw egg consumption, over time, could lead to a biotin deficiency. Cooking your eggs denatures the avidin, allowing your body to absorb 98% of the protein. So ... best to cook your eggs.


Advantages of egg white protein powder:

  • Biological Value of 100

  • Absorption is High for Cooked Egg

  • Mixes well with foods to increase protein content

  • Fat free


Sources of Protein


Food group

Protein Content

Beef

 

Rump, 100g

31.8

Fillet, 100g

29.8

Sirloin, 100g

28

Chicken

 

Breast, 100g

28

Drums, 100g

28

Fish

 

Whiting, 100g

19

Salmon, 100g

20

Other Protein Types

 

Egg, 2 Large

12

Kidney beans, 100g

12.8

Almond Nuts, 50g

8.4

Milk, 250ml

8.2

Cottage Cheese, low fat, 100g

12

Protein Powders

 

Whey Protein Isolate, 100g

90

Whey Protein Concentrate, 100g

80

Casein, 100g

60

Soy Protein Isolate, 100g

90

Egg White, 100g

80

Food group

Biological Value (BV)

Beef

 

Rump, 100g

80

Fillet, 100g

80

Sirloin, 100g

80

Chicken

 

Breast 100g

79

Drums 100g

79

Fish

 

Whiting 100g

83

Salmon 100g

83

Miscellaneous

 

Egg (1 Large)

100

Kidney beans 100g

49

Almond Nuts (50g)

NA

Milk 250ml

91

Cheese (cottage) 50g

NA

Protein Powders

 

Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) 100g

110-159

Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) 100g

104

Casein 100g

77

Soy Protein Isolate 100g

74

Egg White 100g

88




* Biological Value is a ranking given to protein to show comparisons in their availability within the body.


Essential Amino Acids


Tryptophan

  • Natural relaxant

  • Reduces depression (precursor to serotonin)

  • Required for Melatonin synthesis (natural sleep molecule)

  • May help with the treatment of headaches

  • Boosts the immune system

  • Only essential amino acid not required for skeletal muscle protein synthesis


Lysine

  • Helps reduce herpes outbreaks and other viral conditions

  • Helps form hydroxylysine, for collagen

  • Aids in the production of antibodies, hormones and enzymes

  • Helps maintain full hair growth and prevents anemia

  • Low levels found in grain protein


Methionine

  • Helps stop the formation of ammonia

  • Aids normal hair growth by supporting the root

  • Makes the liver produce lecithin, which lowers cholesterol levels

  • Reduces liver fat and protects kidneys

  • Main supplier of sulfur to prevent skin, nail and hair disorders

  • Required for natural SAMe synthesis

  • May boost mood in unipolar depression


Phenylalanine

  • Reduces hunger pains

  • Keeps you awake and alert

  • Anti-depressant

  • Improves memory

  • Support adrenal gland health

  • Needed for dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline


Threonine

  • A major product of collagen, Elastin and Enamel protein

  • Stops fat build up in the liver

  • Aids in digestion

  • Helps absorption of several nutrients


Valine

  • Promotes mental vigour

  • Muscle coordination

  • Helps calm emotions

  • Muscle catabolises for energy


Leucine

  • Increases mental alertness

  • Energy production

  • Muscle Uses for energy

  • Activates the famous mTOR


Isoleucine

  • Increases mental alertness

  • Energy production

  • Muscle Breaks Down for energy


Histidine

  • Used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergic diseases, ulcers and anemia

  • Needed for natural beta-alanine synthesis

  • Precursor to histamine


Non-Essential Amino Acids


Arginine

  • Promotes wound healing

  • Helps regeneration of the liver

  • Causes the release of growth hormones

  • Optimizes muscle growth and tissue repair

  • Major precursor to Nitric Oxide (NO), muscle pump


Tyrosine

  • Transmits nerve impulses to the brain

  • Natural anti-depressant

  • Improves memory

  • Increases mental alertness

  • Promotes the healthy function of the thyroid, adrenal and pituitary glands


Glutamine

  • Helps treat ulcers

  • Help raise Human Growth Hormone levels

  • Nitrogen metabolism


Glycine

  • Important in the manufacturing of hormones

  • Serine

  • Strengthen the immune system by providing antibodies

  • A storage source of glucose by the liver and muscles

  • Neuro Inhibitory (calming effect in brain)


Glutamic Acid

  • Major improver of mental capacities

  • Helps with the healing of ulcers

  • Helps reduce fatigue

  • Helps control hunger


Aspartic Acid

  • Aids removal of ammonia

  • Increase resistance to fatigue

  • Increase endurance


Taurine

  • Removes free radicals from the body

  • Along with sulfur is a major control of the ageing process


Cysteine

  • Strong antioxidant

  • Slows the ageing process

  • Deactivates free radicals

  • Neutralizes toxins

  • Helps production of hair and skin

  • Helps with recovery from burns and surgical operations


Proline

  • Important for the proper function of joints and tendons

  • Helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles

  • Required for hydroxyproline, needed for collagen strength


Alanine

  • Important source of energy for muscle tissue

  • Major producer of antibodies

  • Necessary for the metabolism of sugars and organics acids

 

Excessive consumption of Protein

It seems many everyday people and athletes in today's society have an ever-increasing need to be bigger, fitter, faster, stronger. The key ingredient mentioned throughout this article is protein. No doubt we have all heard the claims about too much protein harming your kidneys, which has mostly come from preliminary research showing that high protein diets increase glomerular filtration rate, or blood flow to the kidneys, which indicates a higher kidney workload. The truth is you will not damage your kidneys by taking too much protein. All protein is eventually processed by the liver and excreted by the kidneys, as long as we drink a sufficient amount of water daily you will not harm your kidneys. However, some experts are recommending low protein diets for existing cases of chronic kidney disease.


Protein turnover rate (PTOR)

Your protein turnover rate is the amount of protein you can absorb, or need, in each meal throughout the day based on your training schedule and lean muscle mass. When calculating your PTOR you firstly need to determine your level of activity per week. Second you need to determine your approximate lean body muscle mass which is your weight minus fat—impossible to know the exact amount so a rough estimation will suffice. Someone who trains once a week would only require 1g per kilo of lean body muscle mass whereas someone who trains 4 plus times a week would require 2g. Lastly, you need to divide your daily protein intake by 6 as you will require 6 meals a day, the reason for this is you are awake on average 15 hours a day and you need to consume protein every 2.5 hours. So 15 divided by 2.5 equals 6 meals in a day, this is also an indicator of how much protein you can absorb in each meal. Use table one and two as a guide.


Protein Requirement Table


Training frequency per week

Required grams of protein per body weight per day

1-2

1g (x Lean Body Weight)

3

1.5g (x Lean Body Weight)

4

2g (x Lean Body Weight)

 

Table 2.

Lean Body Weight

Grams protein/kg body weight (based on 5 day training frequency) per day

Total Protein required /day

Protein (g) required per meal (total/6)

70

2g

140

23.5g

80

2g

160

26.5g

90

2g

180

30g


Once you have calculated your protein intake per meal you can do the same for your pre and post training protein intake. Pre training is simply half your meal size 90 minutes before training and post workout is 25% of your total daily protein intake with 1:1 or 1:2 protein to carbs ratio. For example someone who weighs 85kgs (lean body mass) and trains 5 times a week will have a PTOR of 28.5g of protein per meal and would require 14g of protein 90 min before training with 42.5g protein and 42.5-85g carbs immediately after training.


Protein and Fat Loss

Most people today are under the impression that in order to lose fat you need reduce the total calories consumed per day. The reduced amount of calories consumed per day than the body is burning will help most people to achieve fat loss. However, measuring a diet purely on the amount of calories consumed alone is not a guaranteed formula for successful and sustainable fat loss. There are a considerable amount of factors to take into account for safe, effective and long lasting fat loss. One of the main factors to consider is protein. Protein makes up a large portion of your body mass. Every living cell in your body (muscle, hair, skin, nails) is constantly being rebuilt on a daily basis. If your protein sources are inadequate for your body's demands then your body will automatically source its needs elsewhere, i.e. muscle. If this is the case your body will go into a catabolic state, which is breakdown muscle for amino acids (because the diet is lacking) and store fat. Therefore, it is important to ensure you know your bodiesprotein turnover rate(PTOR) which is the amount of protein your body can absorb per meal and meet these requires for all 6 meals throughout the day.


Example protein sources:

  • Lean choices of: red meat, chicken breast, turkey breast

  • Fish (tuna, salmon)

  • Eggs

  • Lentils

  • Beans

  • Protein Powders


Whilst it is important to maintain a high protein diet, it is also important to include some nutritious carbohydrates and fats.


Example of nutritious carbohydrate sources:

Green vegetables: broccoli, broccolini, green beans. leafy greens

  • Oats

  • Sweet potatoes

  • Potatoes

  • Pasta

  • Mushrooms

  • Carrots

  • Small portions of fruit

  • Brown rice


Example of beneficial fats:

  • Macadamia nut oil

  • Avocadoes

  • Raw almonds

  • Omega 3 fish oils

  • Chia seed

  • Linseed/Flaxseed


Example meal plan


MEAL

TIME

QTY

ITEM

Meal 1

7.30am

1/3 C1 scoopHandful    3 Eggs (2 whole & 1 White)

Oats cooked in 1cup water. WPI Vanilla mixed in the cooked oats. Blueberries and a dash of ground cinnamon served on top OR Scrambled Eggs and Toast (1pc Bergen Soy & Linseed Bread)

Meal 2

10am

1 Handful

Raw Almonds. WPI Shake with Water

Meal 3

12:30am

80g

Grilled Chicken Breast served with Salad (Lettuce, Tomatoes, Avocado) dressed with Balsamic Vinegar and a dash of macadamia oil

Meal 4

2:30pm

1 smalltin

Tuna in Olive Oil w/ diced Cucumber, Tomato and Lettuce

Meal 5

5pm

3

Hard Boiled Eggs Mashed up with 1 tbsp Whole Egg Mayo and Cracked Pepper

Meal 6

8pm

80g1C

Grilled Steak or Chicken, Steamed greens such as broccoli, beans and asparagus

SNACKS(suggestions)

   

Raw nuts Raw veggie sticks Boiled eggs Low fat yoghurt Cottage cheese and crushed pineapple Protein bar

Water: Consume water until your urine is clear, emptying bladder twice daily. Other beverages: Green tea, White Tea


Following these guidelines and maintaining a high protein, low carbohydrate meal plan is a highly effective, safe approach to long-term sustainable fat loss. If you have any further problems or questions about what is the best protein powder for you please call us on 07 5531 6734 or visit our website at https://www.sportyshealth.com.au